In extreme environments, even the most ordinary tasks can seem like unsurmountable challenges. Because of such difficulties, humanity has, for the most part, settled on grounds that were favorable for harvesting crops, herding cattle, and building shelters. But as we seek to expand the limits of human exploration, both on earth and in space, the people pioneering this search will undoubtedly face conditions that, for all intents and purposes, are not conducive to human habitation.
One of the foremost challenges facing any intended long-term settlement, be it in the Antarctic or on Mars (perhaps in the near future), is achieving some degree of autonomy, to enable isolated colonies to survive even in the event of a catastrophic failure in provisioning. And the key to achieving this autonomy is ensuring food sufficiency and self-sustenance. Unsurprisingly, therefore, space agricultural technology is one of the research topics currently being undertaken by the Research Center for Space Colony at Tokyo University of Science. The researchers here hope to spearhead the technological development for safe and sustainable space agriculture—with the aim of sustaining humans for a long time in an extremely closed environment such as a space station.
To this end, an innovative study was conducted by a team of Japanese researchers led by Junior Associate Professor Norihiro Suzuki from Tokyo University of Science—this study, published as a “Letter,” made the front cover of the prestigious New Journal of Chemistry of the Royal Society of Chemistry. In this study, Dr. Suzuki and his team aimed to address the problem of food production in closed environments, such as those in a space station.
Realizing that farmers have used animal waste as fertilizer for thousands of years, as a rich source of nitrogen, Dr. Suzuki and his team have been investigating the possibility of manufacturing it from urea (the main component of urine), to make a liquid fertilizer. This would also simultaneously address the problem of human waste treatment or management in space! As Dr. Suzuki explains, “This process is of interest from the perspective of making a useful product, i.e., ammonia, from a waste product, i.e., urine, using common equipment at atmospheric pressure and room temperature.”
The research team—which also includes Akihiro Okazaki, Kai Takagi, and Izumi Serizawa from ORC Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Japan—devised an “electrochemical” process to derive ammonium ions (commonly found in standard fertilizers) from an artificial urine sample. Their experimental setup was simple: on one side, there was a “reaction” cell, with a “boron-doped diamond” (BDD) electrode and a light-inducible catalyst or “photocatalyst” material made of titanium dioxide. On the other, there was a “counter” cell with a simple platinum electrode. As current is passed into the reaction cell, urea is oxidized, forming ammonium ions. Dr. Suzuki describes this breakthrough as follows, “I joined the ‘Space Agriteam’ involved in food production, and my research specialization is in physical chemistry; therefore, I came up with the idea of ‘electrochemically’ making a liquid fertilizer.”
The research team then examined whether the cell would be more efficient in the presence of the photocatalyst, by comparing the reaction of the cell with and without it. They found that while the initial depletion of urea was more or less the same, the nitrogen-based ions produced varied both in time and distribution when the photocatalyst was introduced. Notably, the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions was not as elevated in the presence of the photocatalyst. This suggests that the presence of the photocatalyst promoted ammonium ion formation.
Dr. Suzuki states, “We are planning to perform the experiment with actual urine samples, because it contains not only primary elements (phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) but also secondary elements (sulfur, calcium, magnesium) that are vital for plant nutrition! Therefore, Dr. Suzuki and his team are optimistic that this method provides a solid basis for the manufacture of liquid fertilizer in enclosed spaces, and, as. Dr. Suzuki observes, “It will turn out to be useful for sustaining long-term stay in extremely closed spaces such as space stations.”
Humans inhabiting Mars might still be quite a distant reality, but this study surely seems to suggest that we could be on a path to ensuring sustainability—in space—even before we actually get there!
Title of original paper: Formation of ammonium ions by electrochemical oxidation of urea with a boron-doped diamond electrode
Journal: New Journal of Chemistry
About The Tokyo University of Science
Tokyo University of Science (TUS) is a well-known and respected university, and the largest science-specialized private research university in Japan, with four campuses in central Tokyo and its suburbs and in Hokkaido. Established in 1881, the university has continually contributed to Japan’s development in science through inculcating the love for science in researchers, technicians, and educators.
With a mission of “Creating science and technology for the harmonious development of nature, human beings, and society”, TUS has undertaken a wide range of research from basic to applied science. TUS has embraced a multidisciplinary approach to research and undertaken intensive study in some of today’s most vital fields. TUS is a meritocracy where the best in science is recognized and nurtured. It is the only private university in Japan that has produced a Nobel Prize winner and the only private university in Asia to produce Nobel Prize winners within the natural sciences field.
About Dr. Norihiro Suzuki from Tokyo University of Science
Dr. Norihiro Suzuki is a Junior Associate Professor at the Organization for Research Advancement, Research Institute for Science and Technology at Tokyo University of Science. He completed his undergraduate and postgraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Tokyo, eventually earning a doctorate degree. His research focuses on functional inorganic materials and their application to real-life problems. He also belongs to the Research Center for Space Colony, as well as the Photocatalysis International Research Center at Tokyo University of Science.